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About Digital Art / Hobbyist Dinkydau Linteum22/Male/Netherlands Group :iconmandelbrot-portraits: Mandelbrot-Portraits
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DeepDream Mandelbrot by DinkydauSet
DeepDream Mandelbrot
This is a Kalles fraktaler render that was "deepdreamed". It is one of the very few times for me to upload something that is not a raw fractal, but still based on a fractal. The colors were also edited. This is a frame of an upcoming zoom video that will be published in 2 editions: the normal edition and a deepdream edition. The relatively low resolution of course has to do with the fact that this is a frame from a zoom video, but the process of deepdreaming also requires a lot of RAM. An extremely high resolution would not be doable on my computer with 16 GB of RAM. I'm not sure how much further I will look into deepdreaming. I might make more.
Cross of trees 2 by DinkydauSet
Cross of trees 2
Mandel machine, mandelbrot set

This is a continuation of Cross of trees. The colors and luminosity are manipulated in photoshop, but there are no changes to the shape.

6.2726136824206070700569600396441 E1489

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Cross of trees by DinkydauSet
Cross of trees
Mandel machine, mandelbrot set

Simple snowflake design with only few iterations, though consisting of connected trees.

1.3843972363826381531814689023957 E991

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Glimpse of variety by DinkydauSet
Glimpse of variety
Mandel machine, mandelbrot set

This is roughly an S made up of 3 different shapes, as obtained by performing 3rd degree evolution. The 3 types of shapes are circles, stripes/rows and trees. For this to be possible within the current zoom limit of mandel machine, I had to come up with a more efficient way of zooming. I saved zoom depth by using the decorations around the main mandelbrot set to morph with, instead of embedded julia sets. Nearby embedded julia sets lie twice as deep, so this saves a factor 2 in total zoom depth. The result is that everything in the image is connected without any thin lines. This S doesn't really contain shapes, it's rather made up of shapes that are connected to the surroundings everywhere. They would easily blend in with the background if the coloring was not suitably chosen.

While this render is pushing the limits of what mandel machine can do, it's only a glimpse of what kind of variety exists in the mandelbrot set. I went up from 1 to 2 to still just 3 different shapes in an S and already I can allow only a few morphings per shape for it to be feasible.

The depth is possibly a record again. It's deeper than my image Baby Monster which was at a depth of 2^6900. It must be said that Baby Monster is much more extreme because of the high iteration counts.

4.2057849597650643003533697421555 E2286

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Perturbation for the Mandelbrot set

Perturbation for rendering the Mandelbrot set has been around for a while. I would have written a journal before because it's very awesome, but right from the start there was a fundamental problem: reliability. A recent discovery by Pauldelbrot on indicates that perturbation can now be used to render the Mandelbrot set reliably. Is the project approaching completion? "Correctness" now appears to be achieved.


Roughly a year ago, Kevin Martin published a relatively short document about the Mandelbrot set, containing some equations that staggered everyone. His idea was to apply the principle of perturbation to rendering the Mandelbrot set, and combining that with something he called series approximation. Perturbation allows the iteration count of a pixel to be derived from a different, fully calculated pixel "nearby" (to be called a reference pixel). In practice this means that it's possible to calculate just one single pixel in an image, and derive the rest using perturbation. At great depths with millions of iterations, this saves an enormous amount of render time, which is the main result.

Series approximation allows large number of iterations of pixels to be skipped entirely, good for another enormous speed-up, but it doesn't stop there. In addition, no arbitrary precision calculations are required to do the "deriving" work. Floating point calculations, which are much faster to perform, are sufficient. Martin concludes his document with the following statement:
Using [the equations] means that the time taken rendering Mandelbrot images is largely independent of depth and iteration count, and mainly depends on the complexity of the image being created.
The implications of this are enormous and such a theory is of course yelling to be implemented. Along with the mathematics, Martin also published a simple software implementation of the theory dubbed SuperFractalThing, so that everyone could see that it works. Since then, more software developers have started working on their own implementations.

The simple equation of the Mandelbrot set has long been famous of being so computationally intensive that it can bring any supercomputer to it's knees, as long as you zoom in deep enough. Although that is still the case even with perturbation, the barrier has been shifted significantly. To get an idea of the speed-up we're talking about, consider the following deviation:
SSSSSurvival of the fittest - Evolution #3 by DinkydauSet
Fractal extreme has been the fastest software to calculate the Mandelbrot set for a long time, using traditional optimizations. If the deviation above were to be rendered in Fractal extreme, the render would take roughly 6 months. The actual image was rendered in 6 hours using an implementation of perturbation by Botond Kosa. What you're looking at right there is something that, without perturbation, would have been totally out of reach for many years, no matter how optimized the software is. As Bruce Dawson, the man behind Fractal extreme, commented on good algorithms beat optimized code.


Although there is no doubt that perturbation is a "good algorithm", it came with severe problems right from the start, that Kevin Martin couldn't solve himself. If you have been paying attention, you may have noticed the requirement of a reference pixel to be "nearby". More specifically, usage of floating point numbers to do the calculations requires some numbers in the perturbation equation to be "small". Mathematically, this is completely useless, because there's no exact definition of what "small" is. Indeed, the results of the calculations were shown to be unreliable in many cases. It turned out that the results were correct "most of the time", but sometimes not. Incorrect parts of renders have since been called glitches.

An example of such a glitch can be seen in the image below.
rare_glitch.png (1024×533)
Look closely at the largest spirals. The render on the left contains glitches; the render on the right is correct.

Several attempts have been done to get rid of these inaccuracies. There have been made workarounds where the computer was taught what glitches usually look like, so that they can be automatically recognized and solved. A way to do it is to calculate a second reference point inside the glitched area and do the perturbation calculations again. Having a new reference point more "nearby" solves the glitch. Karl Runmo made notable contributions to this automated glitch solving in his software implementation called Kalles Fraktaler.

As you may understand, it is very difficult to teach a computer to distinguish between correct and incorrect renders visually, especially because glitches can occur in such an enormous variety of types. Even fractal structures can sometimes appear as glitches, which is interesting on its own, but very, very difficult to auto-recognize. As such, manually solving glitches appeared to be a necessity: a very time-consuming process.

It might seem reasonable to spend some time to solve the glitches. Considering how many months of render time (and hundreds of euros worth of electricity) can be saved, spending a day solving glitches doesn't seem so bad. This idea slowly started to change as more difficult types of glitches were found where the "extra-reference-trick" didn't even work. Where does it stop? How many more types of glitches are there and can there ever be made workarounds for all of them? What was needed was more insight in where the inaccuracies come from, so that they can be avoided instead of worked around.

Correctness: now achieved?

Recently, Pauldelbrot on published an algorithm to find reliably which pixels of a render are correct and which aren't. This information can then be used to reliably solve the glitches as well. This was somewhat unexpected, because the algorithm doesn't help in preventing glitches, instead, it helps to detect them afterwards. This is somewhat similar to the approach of Karl Runmo, except Pauldelbrot detects glitches in a non-visual way. The algorithm has shown to be reliable. It automatically solves all the hard-to-detect glitches and no counterexample that slips trough has been found so far. That is great news!

This doesn't mean the project is really finished. There may still be a better way to get rid of glitches still to be discovered and many of the programs that currently use perturbation are still under development. It may even be possible to extend the method of perturbation to be used with different fractals. A good first candidate would be the Mandelbrot set with a power of 3 (instead of 2), but applications in 3d fractal rendering cannot be excluded in the future. The search continues. Mathematics never ends.

Applications in art

I haven't been sitting idle as the developments went on. As such I can now present to you a new video. I once remarked on YouTube that I could do so many more interesting things if just my computer was 1000 times faster. Here you have it. This is one of the things I was thinking of at the time.

More is coming "soon".


Dinkydau Linteum
Artist | Hobbyist | Digital Art
My name is Dinkydau. I started using Apophysis somewhere in 2007. I discovered it on a forum. Someone on that forum had an Apophysis fractal in his signature. I asked him how he made that, and he said he did it with Apophysis. So I downloaded Apophysis and started working with it. In november 2008 I started to do animations and I joined deviantart.

At the moment I don't make flames anymore. In early 2012 I started to focus on exploring the mandelbrot set in the program Fractal eXtreme. I knew about the mandelbrot set before, but it's extremely computationally intensive to explore compared to flames, so I focused on fractal flames at first. Technology and algorithms have improved and I saved up money, so I bought a nice computer. Now I'm focused on finding and rendering mandelbrot locations.

Current Residence: Klaud
Favourite genre of music: classical, deep house, electro, dubstep
Favourite style of art: fractal flames
Operating System: Windows 7
Favourite cartoon character: Donald Duck
Personal Quote: The world seems complex, but that's just because we're part of it.

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Nao1967 Featured By Owner Jul 28, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
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